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prehispanic [2019/08/25 01:48]
prehispanic [2019/08/25 01:53] (current)
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 While the game was played casually for simple recreation, including by children and perhaps even women, the game also had important ritual aspects, and major formal ballgames were held as ritual events, often featuring human sacrifice. While the game was played casually for simple recreation, including by children and perhaps even women, the game also had important ritual aspects, and major formal ballgames were held as ritual events, often featuring human sacrifice.
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 +Mesoamerican astronomy included a broad understanding of the cycles of planets and other celestial bodies. Special importance was given to the sun, moon, and Venus as the morning and evening star.
 +Observatories were built at some sites, including the round observatory at Ceibal and the “Observatorio” at Xochicalco. Often, the architectural organization of Mesoamerican sites was based on precise calculations derived from astronomical observations. Well-known examples of these include the El Castillo pyramid at Chichen Itza and the Observatorio at Xochicalco. A unique and common architectural complex found among many Mesoamerican sites are E-Groups, which are aligned so as to serve as astronomical observatories. The name of this complex is based on Uaxactun’s “Group E,” the first known observatory in the Maya area. Perhaps the earliest observatory documented in Mesoamerica is that of the Monte Alto culture. This complex consisted of three plain stelae and a temple oriented with respect to the Pleiades.
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 +**Symbolism of space and time**
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 +It has been argued that among Mesoamerican societies the concepts of space and time are associated with the four cardinal compass points and linked together by the calendar.[36] Dates or events were always tied to a compass direction, and the calendar specified the symbolic geographical characteristic peculiar to that period. Resulting from the significance held by the cardinal directions, many Mesoamerican architectural features, if not entire settlements,​ were planned and oriented with respect to directionality.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+**In Maya cosmology, each cardinal point was assigned a specific color and a specific jaguar deity (Bacab). They are as follows:**
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+  * Hobnil, Bacab of the East, associated with the color red and the Kan years 
 +  * Can Tzicnal, Bacab of the North, assigned the color white and the Muluc years 
 +  * Zac Cimi, Bacab of the West, associated with the color black and the Ix years 
 +  * Hozanek, Bacab of the South, associated with the color yellow and the Cauac years.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+Later cultures such as the Kaqchikel and K'​iche'​ maintain the association of cardinal directions with each color, but utilized different names.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+**Among the Aztec, the name of each day was associated with a cardinal point (thus conferring symbolic significance),​ and each cardinal direction was associated with a group of symbols. Below are the symbols and concepts associated with each direction:​**
 +  * East: croco dile, the serpent, water, cane, and movement. The East was linked to the world priests and associated with vegetative fertility, or, in other words, tropical exuberance.
 +  * North: wind, death, the dog, the jaguar, and flint (or chert). The north contrasts with the east in that it is conceptualized as dry, cold, and oppressive. It is considered the nocturnal part of the universe and includes the dwellings of the dead. The dog (xoloitzcuintle) has a very specific meaning, as it accompanies the deceased during the trip to the lands of the dead and helps them cross the river of death that leads into nothingness. (See also Dogs in Mesoamerican folklore and myth).
 +  * West: the house, the deer, the monkey, the eagle, and rain. The west was associated with the cycles of vegetation, specifically the temperate high plains that experience light rains and the change of seasons.
 +  * South: rabbit, the lizard, dried herbs, the buzzard, and flowers. It is related on the one hand to the luminous Sun and the noon heat, and on the other with rain filled with alcoholic drink. The rabbit, the principal symbol of the west, was associated with farmers and with pulque.
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 +**Political and religious art**
 +Mesoamerican artistic expression was conditioned by ideology and generally focused on themes of religion and/or sociopolitical power. This is largely based on the fact that most works that survived the Spanish conquest were public monuments. These monuments were typically erected by rulers who sought to visually legitimize their sociocultural and political position; by doing so, they intertwined their lineage, personal attributes and achievements,​ and legacy with religious concepts. As such, these monuments were specifically designed for public display and took many forms, including stele, sculpture, architectural reliefs, and other types of architectural elements (e.g., roofcombs). Other themes expressed include tracking time, glorifying the city, and veneration of the gods—all of which were tied to explicitly aggrandizing the abilities and the reign of the ruler who commissioned the artwork.
 +The majority are artwork created during this historical time was in relation to these topics, religion and politics. Rulers were drawn and sculpted. Historical tales and events were then translated into pieces of art, and art was used to relay religious and political messages.
 +Main article:
 +**See also**
 +  * Americas (terminology)
 +  * Americas
 +  * Central America
 +  * Hispanic America
 +  * Hispanic and Latino Americans
 +  * Indigenous peoples of Mexico
 +  * Indigenous peoples of the Americas
 +  * Latin America
 +  * Mesoamerican region
 +  * Middle America (Americas)
 +  * Painting in the Americas before European colonization
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 +  *  "​Meso-America,"​ Oxford English Reference Dictionary, 2nd ed. (rev.) 2002. (ISBN 0-19-860652-4) Oxford: Oxford University Press; p. 906.
 +  *  (2000): Atlas del México Prehispánico. Revista Arqueología mexicana. Número especial 5. Julio de 2000. Raíces/ Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia. México.
 +  *  Carmack, Gasco & Gossen 1996, p. 55.
 +  *  Brian M. Fagan, ed. (1996). The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. Charlotte Beck. Oxford University Press. p. 762. ISBN 978-0-19-507618-9.
 +  *  Carmack, Gasco & Gossen 1996, pp. 40–80.
 +  *  Carmack, Gasco & Gossen 1996.
 +  *  Kirchhoff 1943.
 +  *  Carmack, Gasco & Gossen 1996, pp. 5–8.
 +  *  Campbell, Kaufman & Smith-Stark 1986.
 +  *  Coe 1994.
 +  *  Carmack, Gasco & Gossen 1996, pp. 9–11.
 +  *  "MTU Volcanoes Page – World Reference Map". Geo.mtu.edu. Retrieved 2014-04-21.
 +  *  "​Science Show – Bosawas Bioreserve Nicaragua"​. Abc.net.au. 2006-08-19. Retrieved 2014-04-21.
 +  *  Franco-Gaviria,​ Felipe (2018). "The human impact imprint on modern pollen spectra of the Mayan lands" (PDF). Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana. 70, 1: 61–78.
 +  *  Roush, Wade (9 May 1997). "​Archaeobiology:​ Squash Seeds Yield New View of Early American Farming"​. Science. 276 (5314): 894–95. doi:​10.1126/​science.276.5314.894.
 +  *  Diehl, p. 248.
 +  *  Paul A. Dunn; Vincent H. Malmström. "​Pre-Columbian Magnetic Sculptures in Western Guatemala"​ (PDF). (10.1 KB)
 +  *  "​Mesoweb Articles"​. mesoweb.com.
 +  *  "Los Ladrones cave site" (PDF). UAC.
 +  *  O'​Brien (2005), p. 25.
 +  *  Diamond (1999), pp. 126–27.
 +  *  Diamond (1999) p. 100.
 +  *  Coe (1994), p. 45 ("The only domestic animals were dogs—the principal source of meat for much of Preclassic Mesoamerica—and turkeys—understandably rare because that familiar bird consumes very large quantities of corn and is thus expensive to raise"​.)
 +  *  Diamond (1999).
 +  *  O'​Brien (2005), p. 25
 +  *  Roxanne V. Pacheco, Myths of Mesoamerican Cultures Reflect a Knowledge and Practice of Astronomy, University of New Mexico, archived July 18, 2003 (accessed January 25, 2016).
 +  *  Bernardino de Sahagun, Historia de las cosas de Nueva Espana; Diego Duran, The Book of The Gods and Rites, Oklahoma; The Books of Chilam Balam of Mani, Kaua, and Chumayel.
 +  *  Mann, Charles C. 1491: Revelations of the Americas before Columbus. Vinton Press. 2005. pp. 196–97.
 +  *  Lecount, Lisa J. "Like Water for Chocolate: Feasting and Political Ritual among the Late Classic Maya at Xunantunich,​ Belize."​ American Anthropologist 103.4 (2001): 935–53. Web.
 +  *  Nawa Sugiyama; William L. Fash; Christine A. M. France (2018). "​Jaguar and puma captivity and trade among the Maya: Stable isotope data from Copan, Honduras"​. PLOS ONE. 13 (9): e0202958. Bibcode:​2018PLoSO..1302958S. doi:​10.1371/​journal.pone.0202958. PMC 6135383. PMID 30208053.
 +  *  Bernard R. Ortiz de Montellano Aztec Medicine, Health, and Nutrition New Brunswick; Rutgers University Press. 1990, pp. 67–71 ISBN 0-8135-1563-7
 +  *  "​Archaeologists Announce Discoveries At The Ancient Maya Site Of Waka' In Northern Guatemala"​. May 6, 2004. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
 +  *  Taladoire (2001:98) Note that slightly over 200 ballcourts have also been identified in the American Southwest. This total does not include those, since they are outside Mesoamerica,​ and there is discussion whether these areas were actually used for ballplaying.
 +  *  Filloy Nadal 2001, p. 30.
 +  *  Leyenaar 2001, pp. 125–26.
 +  *  Duverger 1999
 +  * Adams, Richard E. W.; MacLeod, Murdo J., eds. (2000). Cambridge History of the Native peoples of The Americas. 2: Mesoamerica. Cambridge University Press.
 +  * Braswell, Geoffrey E. (2003). "​Introduction:​ Reinterpreting Early Classic Interaction"​. In Geoffrey E. Braswell (ed.). The Maya and Teotihuacan:​ Reinterpreting Early Classic Interaction. Austin: University of Texas Press. pp. 1–44. ISBN 978-0-292-70587-6. OCLC 49936017.
 +  * Campbell, Lyle (1997). William Bright (ed.). American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America. Oxford Studies in Anthropological Linguistics,​ 4. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-509427-5. OCLC 32923907.
 +  * Campbell, Lyle; Kaufman, Terrence; Smith-Stark,​ Thomas (September 1986). "​Meso-America as a linguistic area". Language. 62 (3): 530–58. doi:​10.2307/​415477. ISSN 0097-8507. JSTOR 415477. OCLC 1361911.
 +  * Carmack, Robert M.; Gasco, Janine L.; Gossen, Gary H. (1996). Legacy of Mesoamerica,​ The: History and Culture of a Native American Civilization. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-337445-2.
 +  * Carrasco, Davíd; Jones, Lindsay; Sessions, Scott (2002). Mesoamerica'​s Classic Heritage: From Teotihuacan to the Aztecs. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.
 +  * Coe, Michael D. (1994) [1962]. Mexico: from the Olmecs to the Aztecs (4th edition, Revised and Enlarged ed.). New York: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-27722-5.
 +  * Diehl, Richard A. (2004). The Olmecs: America'​s First Civilization. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-28503-9.
 +  * Diamond, Jared (1999). Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0-393-31755-8.
 +  * Filloy Nadal, Laura (2001). "​Rubber and Rubber Balls in Mesoamerica"​. In E. Michael Whittington (ed.). The Sport of Life and Death: The Mesoamerican Ballgame. New York: Thames & Hudson. pp. 20–31. ISBN 978-0-500-05108-5.
 +  * Gamio, Manuel (1922). La Población del Valle de Teotihuacán:​ Representativa de las que Habitan las Regiones Rurales del Distrito Federal y de los Estados de Hidalgo, Puebla, México y Tlaxcala (in Spanish) (2 vols. in 3 ed.). Mexico City: Talleres Gráficos de la Secretaría de Educación Pública.
 +  * Gibson, Charles. The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule. Stanford: Stanford University Press 1964.
 +  * Kirchhoff, Paul (1943). "​Mesoamérica. Sus Límites Geográficos,​ Composición Étnica y Caracteres Culturales"​. Acta Americana (in Spanish). 1 (1): 92–107.
 +  * Leyenaar, Ted (2001). "The Modern Ballgames of Sinaloa: a Survival of the Aztec Ullamaliztli"​. In E. Michael Whittington (ed.). The Sport of Life and Death: The Mesoamerican Ballgame. New York: Thames & Hudson. pp. 97–115. ISBN 978-0-500-05108-5.
 +  * Lockhart, James (1992). The Nahuas After the Conquest: A Social and Cultural History of the Indians of Central Mexico, Sixteenth Through Eighteenth Centuries. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-1927-8. OCLC 24283718.
 +  * López Austin, Alfredo; López Luján, Leonardo (1996). El pasado indígena (in Spanish). Mexico City: El Colegio de México. ISBN 978-968-16-4890-9.
 +  * O'​Brien,​ Patrick, ed. (2005). Oxford Atlas of World History. New York: Oxford University Press.
 +  * Markman, Roberta H.; Markman, Peter T. (1992). The Flayed God: the Mesoamerican Mythological Tradition; Sacred Texts and Images from pre-Columbian Mexico and Central America. San Francisco: Harper. ISBN 978-0-06-250528-6. OCLC 25507756.
 +  * Mendoza, Ruben G. (2001). Mesoamerican Chronology: Periodization. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Culture. 2. pp. 222–226. ISBN 978-0-19-510815-6.
 +  * Palerm, Ángel (1972). Agricultura y civilización en Mesoamérica (in Spanish). Mexico: Secretaría de Educación Pública. ISBN 978-968-13-0994-7.
 +  * Restall, Matthew (2004). Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest (1st pbk ed.). Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517611-7. OCLC 56695639.
 +  * Sahagún, Bernardino de (1950–82) [ca. 1540–85]. Charles E. Dibble; Arthur J. O. Anderson (eds.). Florentine Codex: General History of the Things of New Spain. I–XII (translation of Historia General de las Cosas de la Nueva España ed.). Santa Fe, NM and Salt Lake City: School of American Research and the University of Utah Press. ISBN 978-0-87480-082-1. OCLC 276351.
 +  * Sharer, Robert J.; Traxler, Loa P. (2006). The Ancient Maya (6th ed.). Stanford University Press.
 +  * Smith, Michael E. (1997). The Aztecs (first ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-0-631-23015-1. OCLC 48579073.
 +  * Smith, Michael E. (May 2005). "City Size in Late Post-Classic Mesoamerica"​ (PDF). Journal of Urban History. 31 (4): 403–34. doi:​10.1177/​0096144204274396. ISSN 0096-1442. OCLC 1798556.
 +  * Smith, Michael E.; Masson, Marilyn (2000). The Ancient Civilizations of Mesoamerica:​ A Reader. Wiley-Blackwell.
 +  * Suaréz, Jorge A. (1983). The Mesoamerican Indian Languages. Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-22834-3. OCLC 8034800.
 +  * Miller, Mary; Taube, Karl (1993). The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya: An Illustrated Dictionary of Mesoamerican Religion. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-05068-2. OCLC 27667317.
 +  * Taladoire, Eric (2001). "The Architectural Background of the Pre-Hispanic Ballgame"​. In E. Michael Whittington (ed.). The Sport of Life and Death: The Mesoamerican Ballgame. New York: Thames & Hudson. pp. 97–115. ISBN 978-0-500-05108-5.
 +  * Wauchope, Robert, general editor. Handbook of Middle American Indians. Austin: University of Texas Press 1964-1976.
 +  * Weaver, Muriel Porter (1993). The Aztecs, Maya, and Their Predecessors:​ Archaeology of Mesoamerica (3rd ed.). San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-01-263999-3.
 +  * Zeitlin, Robert N.; Zeitlin, Judith (2000). The Paleoindian and Archaic Cultures of Mesoamerica. The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas. 2. pp. 45–122. ISBN 978-0-521-35165-2.
 +**External links**
 +  * Maya Culture
 +  * Mesoweb.com:​ a comprehensive site for Mesoamerican civilizations
 +  * Museum of the Templo Mayor (Mexico) (in Spanish)
 +  * National Museum of Anthropology and History (Mexico) (in Spanish)
 +  * Selected bibliography concerning war in Mesoamerica (in Spanish)
 +  * WAYEB: European Association of Mayanists
 +  * Arqueologia Iberoamericana:​ Open access international scientific journal devoted to the archaeological study of the American and Iberian peoples. It contains research articles on Mesoamerica.
 +  * Vistas: Visual Culture in Spanish America, 1520–1820
 +  * "​Google Scholar Citations: Mesoamerica"​.
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prehispanic.txt · Last modified: 2019/08/25 01:53 by