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nahuatl

Nahuatl

The Nahuatl ( autoglotónimo nāhuatlahtōlli , derived from Nahua-tl , “clear or pleasant sound” and tlahtol-li , “language or language”) 1 is a macrolanguage Uto-Aztecan spoken in Mexico . 2 It exists, at least, since the fifth century, although when differentiation occurs between the southern Yuto-Nahua and the Proto-Nahua ( c. 3rd century ) it is already possible to speak of a Nahuatl language. With the expansion of the Coyotlatelco Culture during the 5th and 6th centuries in Mesoamerica , 3 Nahuatl began its rapid diffusion through theNeovolcanic axis reaching to extend along the Pacific coast giving rise to the Pochuteco and another branch towards Veracruz that would give rise to the Nahuat of Central America. Thus, little by little, Nahuatl passed over other Mesoamerican languages ​​until it became a free language for a good part of the Mesoamerican zone; in the first stage it was promoted in the central area of ​​Mexico by the Tepanecs , later in a second stage this language, in part, was spread in the territories dominated by the Mexican Empire , since the fifteenth century.

During the centuries that preceded the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire, the Mexicans had incorporated much of central Mexico into their domains. The imperial influence turned the Nahuatl variant spoken by the inhabitants of Mexico-Tenochtitlan , capital of the empire, into a prestigious language in Mesoamerica. After the arrival of the Spaniards in Mexico, the Nahuatl that until then had no Latin spelling was grammatized. The Spanish wrote many chronicles, grammars, poetic works, and administrative documents using the Latin alphabet during the 16th and 17th centuries . 4 This early written practice, usually based on the Tenochtitlan variant, has been called classical Nahuatland it is one of the most documented and studied languages ​​in America.

Currently, variants of Nahuatl are used in dispersed communities, mostly in rural areas in central Mexico and along the coast. There are considerable differences between variants, and some are not mutually intelligible. The Huasteca region concentrates a large part of Nahuatl speakers. All variants have had different degrees of Spanish influence. None of the contemporary variants is identical to classical Nahuatl, although the central variants, spoken around the Valley of Mexico , are more closely related to it than those of the periphery . Dialectological evidence indicates that modern variants do not appear to be evolutions of the variant spoken inTenochtitlan , but evolutions of regional variants already existing before the codification of the so-called classic Nahuatl. Following this idea, it has been proposed that the language of the Mexican capital was a koine resulting from contact between speakers of different variants 5 .

Nahuatl is the native language with the highest number of speakers in Mexico, with more than a million and a half, the majority bilingual with Spanish.

Linguistic Classification The Nahuatl belongs to the Yuto-Nahua (uto-Aztec) family which has a prehistoric division in “Yuto-Nahua of the North” and “Yuto-Nahua of the South”, of this last branch four groups were developed, of these the group “Nahuatlano” 6 also called “Nahuano” or “Aztec” is what gives rise to Nahuatl. The Yuto-Nahua division of the South / Nahuatlano is the moment when Proto-Nahua arises , which is the ancestor of all variants. According to some authors, the first division of the proto-Nahua gave rise to the extinct Pochuteco , leaving on the other hand what North American linguists call General Aztec 7 or nuclear Nahuatl according to INALI, which in turn is divided into two branches, we have West Nahuatl and East Nahuatl , finally, the western branch is divided into Nahuatl of the Western Periphery and central Nahuatl . All current dialect variants are derived from these groups.

The current sub-classification of Nahuatl is based on research by Canger (1980, 1988) and Lastra de Suárez (1986). Canger initially introduced the scheme of a central grouping and two peripheral groups; Lastra agreed with this notion although it differs in some details. Canger and Dakin (1985) reconsidered an older basic division of the community of speakers of Proto-Nahua into only two branches, the Western and the Eastern and thus justify and understand the variations of the Orientals that show a greater temporal depth. Canger originally considered the central zone as an innovative sub-area within the western branch, but in 2011, he suggested that it emerged as a Koine languageurban with characteristics of both areas, both western and eastern. Canger (1988) provisionally included the Huasteca dialects in the central group, while Lastra de Suárez (1986) places them on the eastern periphery; Kaufman (2001) and most current researchers accept these conclusions.

From a typological point of view, it highlights its importance as an example of a polysynthetic and binding language , particularly in verbal morphology and in the formation of vocabulary. Typologically it is also a final core language, in which the modifier usually precedes the modified core.

History Pre-Hispanic era On the issue of the geographical point of origin, linguists during the twentieth century agreed that the family of Yuto-Nahuas languages originated in the southwestern United States . 9 October Both the evidence of archeology and ethnohistory supports a spreading southward across the American continent; This movement of speaking communities occurs in several waves from the deserts of northern Mexico to central Mexico. The proto-nahua therefore arose in the region between Chihuahua and Durango where when occupying a greater extension of territory, it quickly formed two variants, one that continued dispersing towards the south with innovative changes while the other with conservative features of the jute-Nahua moved to the east.

The proposed migration of speakers of the Proto-Nahua language in the Mesoamerican region has been placed sometime around the year 500, towards the end of the Early Classic period in Mesoamerican chronology. November December 13 Before reaching the center of Mexico, pre-Aztecan groups probably spent a period of time in contact with the tongues Cora and Huichol of western Mexico (which are also Uto-Aztecan). 12

The emergence of Nahuatl and its variants therefore occurs during the height of Teotihuacán . The Teotihuacan commercial routes served for a rapid diffusion of the new language. The identity of the language spoken by the founders of Teotihuacán is unknown to us, however, it has long been the subject of debate; in this way in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries some researchers believed that Teotihuacán had been founded by Nahuatl speakers; later towards the end of the last century linguistic and archaeological research tends to contradict that point of view. It is now believed that it is more likely that the Teotihuacan language was related to the Totonacor outside of myxe-zoqueano origin. 14 Much of the Nahua migration to central Mexico was a consequence and not a cause of the fall of Teotihuacán. 15 From these early times loans were given between different language families and even at the morphosyntactic level.

In Mesoamerica, the families of the Mayan , Ottoman and Mixe-Zoque languages ​​had coexisted for millennia. The interaction of these languages ​​generated a series of common features in all of them that allow us to understand the Mesoamerican zone as a single linguistic level, regardless of the evolution of each language in its own group. After the Nahuas arrived in the high culture area of Mesoamerica , their language also adopted some of the features that define the Mesoamerican linguistic area; 16 17 For example nahuas adopted the use of relational nouns and a typical form of construction possessive of mesoamericanas languages.

Teotihuacán exercised a centralist power and set the standards for local manors, who apparently had to be legitimized from the metropolis. After the collapse of the big city, new models emerged to hold power, along with these models, the Nahuatl language was reportedly promoted 18 which is considered widespread by the Coyotlatelco culture, 19 however, the language was not only spoken by its natives, but was gradually adopted by the Ottoman populations with greater antiquity and who had depended on Teotihuacán. When Tula Chico was foundedin the seventh century the Nahua influence was already felt but it was not very intense; Three hundred years later, with the re-foundation of this city in the year 900, which will be known as “Tollan” ( Tula ), its founders are recognized by the sources as “Nahuas-Chichimecas” who share power with the nonohualcas 20 It is at this time that Nahuatl acquires political relevance, shortly after it will become the official language of the Tepanecas (who originally spoke a variant of the Otomi ), 21 and already in the fourteenth century it was adopted by the Tetzcoco acolhuas . 22

Although Mexica is believed to have always spoken Nahuatl, they may have adopted it as well. 23 The political and linguistic influence of this group became widespread in Middle America and Nahuatl became a frank language among merchants and elites in Mesoamerica, for example among the Quiche Maya . 24 Tenochtitlan grew to become the largest Mesoamerican city center, this attracted Nahuatl speakers from other areas had spread for centuries previously, which gave birth to a new urban form of Nahuatl with traits of many dialects . This urbanized variety of Tenochtitlan-Tlatelolco is what came to be known asClassic Nahuatl and was widely documented in the colonial era.

Viceroyalty period With the arrival of the Spaniards in the heart of Mexico in 1519 the situation of the Nahuatl language would change significantly; On the one hand, a shift through the Spanish language begins; on the other, its official use for communication with the natives generated the establishment of new settlements; At the same time there was the creation of extensive documentation in Latin writing, which establishes a reliable record for its preservation and understanding, so that language remained important in the Nahua communities under Spanish rule.

The Spaniards realized the importance of the language and preferred to continue its use than to change it, they also found that learning all indigenous languages ​​of what they would call New Spain was impossible in practice, so they concentrated on The Nahuatl Immediately after the Conquest , the Franciscan missionaries founded schools - such as the College of Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco in 1536 - for the indigenous nobility with the purpose of re-educating them within the western canons, where they learned theology , grammar, music, mathematics. At the same time the missionaries undertook the writing of grammars, called “arts” at that time, of the indigenous languages ​​for use by priests. The first Nahuatl grammar written in 1531 by the Franciscans is lost, the oldest one that was preserved was written by Andrés de Olmos and published in 1547. By the year of 1645 we have news of four more published works whose authors are, in 1571 Alonso de Molina , in 1595 Antonio del Rincón, in 1642 Diego de Galdo Guzmán and in 1645 Horacio Carochi . The latter is considered today the most important of the grammarians of the viceregal era. 26Carochi has been especially important for researchers working in the new philology, due to its scientific approach that precedes modern linguistic research, analyzes phonological aspects in more detail than its predecessors and even successors, who had not taken into account the pronunciation of the glottal closure ( saltillo ) which is actually a consonant or vocal length .

In 1570 King Felipe II of Spain decreed that Nahuatl should become the official language in New Spain in order to facilitate communication between the Spaniards and the natives of the colonies. 27 During this period the Spanish Crown allows a high degree of autonomy in the local administration of indigenous peoples, and in many villages the Nahuatl language was the official de facto, both written and spoken. During the 16th and 17th centuries, classical NahuatlIt was used as a literary language, and a large corpus of documents from that period survived to this day. The works of this period include stories, chronicles, poetry, plays, Christian canonical works, ethnographic descriptions and administrative documents. As examples we can cite the Florentine Codex , a twelve-volume compendium of Mexican culture compiled by the Franciscan Bernardino de Sahagún ; the Chronicle Mexicáyotl by Fernando Alvarado Tezozomoc that recounts the origin and royal lineage of Tenochtitlán; the Mexican Songswhich are a collection of poems in Nahuatl; the dictionary compiled by Alonso de Molina Nahuatl-Spanish and Spanish-Nahuatl which remains basic for modern lexicology; and the Huei tlamahuiçoltica , one of the Nahuatl descriptions of the apparition of the Virgin of Guadalupe .

For a time, the linguistic situation in New Spain remained relatively stable but in 1686 King Carlos II issued a royal ID that prohibits the use of any language other than Spanish throughout the Spanish Empire , reiterating it in 1691 and 1693, in the which dictates the creation of the “school plot” for the teaching of the imperial language. 28 Another decree on May 10, 1770, now of Carlos III , established the creation of new teaching centers entirely in Spanish for the indigenous nobility and got rid of classical Nahuatl as a literary language, 29Although until the Independence of Mexico in 1821, the Spanish courts still admitted testimonies in Nahuatl and documentation as evidence in the trials, with judicial translators exhibiting in Spanish.

The indigenous and Nahuatl speech situation at the beginning of the Independence movement had actually been sustained as 66% of the population was indigenous to the 6 million inhabitants of the country. 31 Demographic indicators show a growth parallel to that of the mestizo population of Mexico. The Nahua communities had already assimilated Christianity in a syncretic way, they were also a fundamental part of the productive force of the country; its local development was based on a tradition already consummated during the last 300 years and that had generated few changes in its social and cultural organization, in fact, many of these manifestations survived to this day.

Modern era Throughout the modern era, the situation of indigenous languages ​​has increased in precariousness more and more in Mexico, and the number of speakers of virtually all indigenous languages ​​has decreased. Although the absolute number of Nahuatl speakers has actually increased in the last century, indigenous populations have become increasingly marginalized in Mexican society. The great changes in the indigenous communities came from the agrarian reforms that emerged from the revolutionary Ayutla Plan through the “ Lerdo Law ” in the mid-nineteenth century, 32 with which the notion of “ ejido ” was installed”Which divided the communal lands and thereafter the natives were forced to pay a series of new taxes and that under the duress of landowners and government could not pay creating the large estates , which caused them to gradually lose their lands , your identity, your language, and even your freedom.

This process accelerated the changes in the asymmetric relationship between indigenous languages ​​and Spanish, so Nahuatl was increasingly influenced and modified; as a first consequence, an area of ​​rapid loss of speech and customs near large cities is observable, as a second consequence we see areas where “Castilianization” is stronger causing active bilingualism, in a third area indigenous speakers remained more isolated and preserved their traditions more pure. The Porfirian policies tended to the elimination of native languages, seeking development and progress of the country under a nationalismMexican, politics followed by post-revolutionary governments. Only until the Cardenista government does a true institutional interest arise in understanding and studying indigenous culture, trying to reverse the tendency of forced incorporation into national culture, which in fact did not happen and the loss continued until the eighties.

Significant changes have taken place since at least the mid-1980s, although educational policies in Mexico focused on the Castilianization of indigenous communities, to teach purely Spanish and discourage the use of native languages, resulted in today in day a good number of Nahuatl speakers are able to write both their language and Spanish; 33 Even so, its Spanish literacy rate is still much lower than the national average. 3. 4Despite this, Nahuatl is still spoken by more than one million people, of which about 10% are monolingual. The survival of Nahuatl as a whole is not in imminent danger, but the survival of certain dialects is; and some dialects have already become extinct during the last decades of the twentieth century. 35 36

The 1990s saw the emergence of diametral changes in Mexican government policies towards indigenous and linguistic rights. The evolution of agreements in the field of international rights 37 combined with internal pressures led to legislative reforms and the creation of decentralized government agencies; Thus, by 2001 the National Indigenous Institute disappeared to give way to the CDI ( National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples ) and INALI created in 2003 with responsibilities for the promotion and protection of indigenous languages, in particular the Law General of Linguistic Rights of Indigenous Peoples 38It recognizes all indigenous languages ​​of the country, including Nahuatl, as “national languages” and gives indigenous people the right to use them in all spheres of public and private life. In Article 11, which guarantees access to compulsory, bilingual and intercultural education. 39 This law gives rise to the Catalog of National Indigenous Languages in 2007. 40

In 1895, Nahuatl was spoken by more than 5% of the population. By the year 2000, this proportion had fallen to 1.49%. Given the marginalization process combined with the trend of migration to urban areas and the United States, some linguists are warning about the imminent death of languages. 41 At present, Nahuatl is spoken mostly in rural areas by an impoverished class of indigenous subsistence farmers. According to the National Statistics Institute of Mexico, INEGI, 51% of Nahuatl speakers are involved in the agricultural sector and 6 out of 10 do not receive salaries or earn less than the minimum wage.

Distribution and dialect variants As a linguistic label the term “Nahuatl” includes a continuum of linguistic variants that can be seen, either as a group of closely related languages, or as divergent dialects of the same language. In any case, the variants of Nahuatl would belong to the Nahuatl group (also called Nahuatlano and Nahuano) of the Yuto-Nahua family. The National Institute of Indigenous Languages , for example, recognizes 30 variants 42 within the linguistic group labeled “Nahuatl”. The Ethnologue catalog , on the other hand, recognizes 28 variants identified with separate ISO codes. Sometimes, the “Nahuatl” label is also used including the Nahuat language of El Salvadorincorrectly known as “Pipil” .

Nahuatl family tree In Mexico, the Nahuatl language is spoken mainly in five states: Guerrero , Puebla , Hidalgo , San Luis Potosí and Veracruz , where in each state there is a population of over 100,000 speakers. In the states of Morelos and Tlaxcala it has a dispersed population or in small towns; On average you can talk about a population of around 20 thousand speakers. In the states of Tabasco , Michoacán , Mexico , Oaxaca , Nayarit and Durango , as well as the inhabitants of Milpa Alta the presence is minimal and with the possibility of getting lost (except in Oaxaca).

The dialect variants are grouped into three branches, central Nahuatl, Nahuatl of the Western Periphery and Eastern Nahuatl. Some of the dialects are:

Central Nahuatl is a derivation of the “Western Nahuatl” that during the 14th and 15th centuries developed several innovations while assimilating some characteristics of the other variants. In the same fifteenth century already presented a differentiation and were considered different from the center (valley of Mexico), Morelos or Tlaxcala-Puebla.

Classic Nahuatl is the denomination of the language registered during the Viceroyalty; This actually reflects a series of variants. A large part of it seems only one language is due to the efforts of the friars who wanted to transmit, through the most cultured language, the Christian faith. Subsequently, the viceregal authorities, with a more colloquial form, allowed for the preparation of documents (wills, territorial lawsuits, complaints, etc.) in the Nahuatl language. The books and documents written in Mexico City contain a more elegant style, which the religious wanted to rescue. Diverse work comes from other important cities such as Colhuacán, Chalco, Cuauhtitlan, Tlaxcala, Tecamachalco. The most marked differences between the Mexican variant and others can be seen when comparing theNican mopohua with texts from Jalisco (Yáñez, 2001) or from Guatemala (Dakin, 1996).

Náhuatl de Morelos is a generic denomination that designates the entire population that speaks of this language in the state, which is why it is confusing. For Ethnologue there are only two variants, one with the ISO 639-3 nhm code that represents the majority of Nahuas, and with nhg code it classifies Tetelcingo speakers .

The INALI divides the state in four variants; the most representative and to which the code “nhm” would be called Mexican Tetela del Volcán (is the Nahuatl of Hueyapan and Santa Catarina); the other variant are the Mexican of Temixco (Nahuatl de Cuentepec); the low central Mexican (spoken in the municipalities of Ayala and Jojutla) and of course the Nahuatl of Tetelcingo that he calls Mexican from Puente de Ixtla . The total Nahua-speaking population in the state is 19,241 people.

Náhuatl de Tlaxcala is one of the variants that presents a great asymmetry in its relationship with Spanish, a good part of the historical towns that speak it are being absorbed by the urban spot of the Puebla-Tlaxcala Metropolitan Zone , so they have modified over the years its structure and phonology; It is spoken more frequently in the municipalities of the western region of the Malintzi Volcano and in the southern part of the state, such as Tetlahnocan , Contla de Juan Cuamatzi , Chiautempan , Teolocholco and San Pablo del Monte . It is named by the Mexican INALI of the central east and has about 19 thousand speakers.

The Nahuatl of Tetelcingo or Mösiehual i although related to the classic Nahuatl had an evolution that has forced researchers to develop a very particular writing system. 45 The first study of this variant was done by William Cameron Townsend in 1935. It is spoken by less than 3,500 people in the municipality of Cuautla de Morelos ( Morelos ).

For some considered the most conservative or the one that resumed archaic characteristics such as the use of the absolutive in -t. There are three very marked areas, on the one hand we have the “Nahuatl of La Huasteca” with great influence of the central variants; the variants of the center of Veracruz and southern Puebla with features of the Gulf; and the so-called “Isthmus” (or Gulf) variants with a strong substitution of –tl for –t and a great resemblance to the Nahuat language of El Salvador .

The Nahuatl Guerrero or Nahuatl of Guerrero for a long time was classified in the central branch, however the studies reveal a substrate of oriental elements and the central elements apparently are innovations that occurred from the thirteenth century. 46 In the state of Guerreroa dialectal variation is presented that gives rise to four different variants: two of the “Western Periphery”; the “Nahuatl of Tlamacazapa” and the “Nahuatl of Coatepec”. The bulk of speakers (about 150,000) who are properly from the “Nahuatl of Guerrero” are located in the central-mountain region of the state; The fourth variant is the “Nahuatl of Ometepec”, near the Costa Chica and which has 430 speakers. This last variant is also classified in the western branch.

The INALI includes three variants under the name of Nahuatl of the Isthmus (also called Nahuatl istmeño ), 48 according to the studies of the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL for its acronym in English) corresponds to the most extreme way to the south, in the Cosoleacaque municipality , the ISO 639-3 nhk code , the Mehyapan code the nhx code and the Pajapan code applies the nhp code .

The most representative and studied variant is that of Mecayapan. It has about 20,000 speakers, also distributed in the town of Tatahuicapan . 49

In its evolutionary phonological process, this language is related to Nabasat Tabasco and uses the letters / b /, / d /, / g / and / r /. In addition this variant is characterized by the use of long vowels.

The northern region of Puebla has a fairly rugged geography, which causes more isolation among communities; This situation generated that in a small territory they have three variants according to Ethnologue , four according to INALI . The denominations are confusing because they use almost the same words as “north”, “sierra”, as we will see next. The Nahuatl of the central northeast , (denomination of INALI) is equivalent to Nahuatl, Northern Puebla of Ethnologue with code NCJ. For the Mexican institution it is the variant spoken in the municipalities of Acaxochitlán (Hidalgo), in the municipalities of Chiconcuauhtla, Honey, Huauchinango, Jopala, Juan Galindo, Naupan, Pahuatlán, Tlaola, Tlapapcoya, Xicotepec, Zihuateutla. This variant is actually derived from the central Nahuatl . It has 71 040 speakers. 51 One of the first studies in the area was done by Yolanda Lastra in Acaxochitlán in 1980 (see bibliography).

Properly the eastern variants are the Nahuatl of the northeastern mountain range of Puebla , 52 spoken in the municipalities of Atempan, Ayotoxco, Cuautempan, Cuetzalan, Chignautla, Hueyapan, Hueytamalco, Huitzilán de Serdán, Ixtacamaxtitlán, Jonotla, Nauzontla, Tenampulco, Tetela de Oampulco, Tetela de Oampulco , Teziutlán, Tlatlauquitepec, Tuzamapan, Xiutetelco, Xochiapulco, Xochitlán, Yaonahuac, Zacapoaxtla, Zautla, Zapotitlán, Zaragoza, Zoquiapan. Ethnologue assigns the code AZZ ( Nahuatl, Highland Puebla ). It has 134,737 speakers. 53 In this variant the use of / t / in the words instead of / tl / is very marked; the natives call their language “mexikanotlajtol” and call themselves “maseualmej” as the equivalent ofindigenous people .

The other variant called Nahuatl in the western Sierra de Puebla is spoken in Ahuacatlán, Aquixtla, Chignauapan, Tepetzintla, Zacatlán. The NHI code ( Nahuatl, Zacatlán-Ahuacatlán-Tepetzintla ) is associated. It has 19 482 speakers. 54

The fourth variant recognized by INALI is called Nahuatl Alto in northern Puebla and is spoken only in the municipalities of Francisco Z. Mena and Venustiano Carranza. It has 1350 speakers.

The Nahuatl of La Huasteca , is one of the varieties with the highest number of speakers. Although they are recognized as three distinct regions with particularities, the intelligibility is very high among them. In the state of Hidalgo (mainly in the municipalities of Huejutla , Jaltocán , Pisaflores and Tenango de Doria ) it is named by the Mexican INALI of the Huasteca hidalguense ; in the northwest of Veracruz it is called Nahuatl de la Huasteca Veracruz ; and in the southeast of San Luis Potosí they classify it as Nahuatl of the Huasteca potosina . It has about 464 thousand speakers in all three areas.

Nahuatl of the Western Periphery The variants of the states of Michoacán, Colima, Jalisco, Nayarit and Durango correspond to this branch. Although it is practically extinct in Jalisco and Colima, it has not been declared that way by any institution. In addition, the population of Tlamacazapa (municipality of Taxco, Guerrero), Coatepec Costales (municipality of Teloloapan, Guerrero) and Subjectscaltepec (State of Mexico) are included. These variants are recognized by the use of / l / where the central variants use / tl /. They are also variants with greater phonological changes and morpho-syntax, which shows a greater differentiation compared to other regions.

Nahuatl of Michoacán The Nahuatl of Michoacán or western central Mexican is spoken on the coast of Michoacán and part of the mountains attached to it; It has suffered a great loss of speakers but it is at the same time one of those that is more attached to its traditions. In order to recover their language, compulsory indigenous education has been implemented during the first three school cycles of basic education and literary writing is promoted. 57 It has 2809 speakers.

Nahuatl de Jalisco The Nahuatl of Jalisco or Mexican of the West 58 was a variant that was spoken to the south of the state and shared features with the “Nahuatl of Michoacán”. It was the first variant to have its own grammar, it was prepared in 1692 by Fray Juan Guerra and was called “ Art of the Mexican language. It was usual among the Indians of the bishopric of Guadalajara and on behalf of those of Durango and Michoacán .” The impositions by local governments during the Porfiriatowere the cause of a rapid loss of speech in the early twentieth century, post-revolutionary governments did not show a better disposition even for their study, so in the sixties and seventies when linguists and researchers wanted to study it was already dying . 59

Current distribution of blank Nahuatl. Historical distribution in gray 60 Mexican Nahuatl of Durango or Mexican of the northwest 61 is a variety that is also known as “Mexican Nahuatl” and is spoken in the state of Durango, in the towns of San Pedro de las Jícoras, San Juan de Buenaventura among others. The Nahuas of this region have a very active interaction with the Tepehuanes , Coras and Huicholes with whom they share territory. Their survival has been due to the isolation and poor accessibility of their communities; they live in a self-sufficient economy; His tongue is the usual in everyday life. Although they are mostly bilingual, they do not learn Spanish until after 5 or 6 years. It has about 1300 speakers.

Nawat of El Salvador The Nawat is one of the variants related historically to the inhabitants of Cuzcatlán , today El Salvador and part of Nicaragua . There is a record that was also spoken in populations of Honduras. Today in El Salvador is in disuse. Ethnologue reports study 500 people as of 2015. 62

Pochuteco The pochuteco was a Nahua language that was spoken in the South Coast of Oaxaca, particularly in the current municipality of Pochutla , was studied in 1912 by the American anthropologist Franz Boas , who wrote a description to 1917 in International Journal of American Linguistics . At present it is considered by some scholars as the first variant that evolved before the emergence of the eastern and western branches, however, their study was not complete, so their classification is in fact doubtful.

nahuatl.txt · Last modified: 2019/08/24 19:22 by jesusopochtli